Montezuma Castle, one of the ancient ruins in Arizona

19 Ancient Ruins in Arizona To Visit: A Complete Guide

Ancient ruins in Arizona are scattered all over the state. Thousands of them. You might find anything from multi-story cliff dwellings, home to a whole village, to one-room adobe homes, or just parts of a long-gone wall, even without searching.

In some areas, you might find potsherds dating from thousands of years ago laying on the desert surface. All you have to do is look under your feet, no need to even dig for them.

In the desert things get preserved, baked and dried for future generations to find.

Unfortunately, as we build up our environment, fewer and fewer places like this remain untouched.

Lucky for those of us who like to see signs of ancient civilizations, the larger ruins in Arizona are protected; They are incorporated in National Parks and Monuments, State Parks, or museums. This ensures that we can visit them and learn about the civilizations that built them, people of long ago who lived in this inhospitable environment before modern amenities and air conditioning.

Exhibits in these sites also offer explanations about what happened to the people who built these ancient structures. When visiting the larger sites, we have the opportunity to learn not only about the ancient people of Arizona, but also about their descendants, the modern-day Native people of the state.

Note from the author: All the information presented in this article is a result of my multiple visits to all of the sites mentioned, and of reading about the archaeology of Arizona and the US Southwest for over three decades.

My Introduction to the Ancient Ruins of Arizona

The stories of the ancients, and by extension, the remains of their civilizations, the ancient ruins they left behind, are one of the reasons I live in Arizona. When I first saw Montezuma Castle, before even moving to this state, I was in awe. And I grew up surrounded by ancient structures in Transylvania. However, I’ve never seen a cliff dwelling, and I admired the ingenuity of the ancient people who built them. Even more surprising was the revelation that it was an ancient village built inside the rock.

Over time, I visited many of these sites, and I still love the chance to revisit them over and over again. Though I explored many, I know more lay hidden in the desert, sometimes in plain view in remote areas.

I came across some of these ancient ruins in Arizona, these archaeological sites in 1993, during my first visit to Arizona with my husband. Our main destination was the Grand Canyon (obviously), when we landed in Phoenix for a week-long vacation. During the heat of September, we didn’t linger in the city. Instead, we drove through Northern Arizona.

It was my introduction to the ancient ruins of Arizona and of the desert Southwest.

Over the decades, I visited many others and learned more about the people who built and inhabited them. The following list includes some of my favorite ancient ruins in Arizona.

1. Montezuma Castle

Montezuma Castle - photo by Győző Egyed
Montezuma Castle – photo by Győző Egyed

Not a castle – and definitely not built by the legendary Aztec king it got its name from – Montezuma Castle is a misnomer.

To travelers of European descent who first saw this it, the cliff dwelling looked like a castle. Since they only heard of King Montezuma, they assumed it must’ve been his.

They were wrong, of course. The people of this “castle” lived here between 1050 and 1400, a century before Montezuma was born.

Built into the limestone cliff above the trail, the 40-room towering structure is truly impressive. But rather than being a castle for an elite few, it housed a village.

Since we don’t know what the people who built this structure called themselves, we borrowed the term Sinagua (“without water”) from the Spanish explorers. It was a term they used for the San Francisco Peaks, the closest mountain range, “the mountain without water”.

When you visit the site, you’ll understand the Sinagua ingenuity. Not only did they build their home inside a cliff but they figured out how to bring water to their settlement in an arid region.

Montezuma Castle National Monument is one of the most accessible of the national parks in Arizona, and an easy day trip from Phoenix.

To get there, follow the sign from the turnoff from I-17 between Phoenix and Flagstaff. Stop at the Visitor Center first, then follow the trail in the shadow of mature Arizona sycamore trees.

2. Cliff Dwellings at Montezuma Well

Montezuma Well
Cliff dwelling on the sides of Montezuma Well

Part of the same National Park, Montezuma Well, is a short drive from the cliff dwelling. Built by the same Sinagua, smaller cliff dwellings decorate the sides of the well. Other pueblo-style structures lie in its vicinity.

The well is a natural limestone sinkhole, a cenote, as they call them in Mexico. It is an unexpected sight in the high deserts of Arizona.

Offering a perfect setting for a variety of wildlife and waterfowl, the well also proved a great place for a human settlement in ancient times.

In the summer, the cold water and shade make it at least ten degrees cooler than the surrounding sun-drenched desert. No wonder the Sinagua (who were definitely not without water here) built their homes in the area.

3. Tuzigoot

the ancient ruins of Tuzigoot
The Tuzigoot Citadel

Not too far from Montezuma Well, another national park, Tuzigoot preserves a different type of village built by the same Sinagua.

We don’t find cliff dwellings here. Instead, we walk through a citadel built on a hill overlooking Tavasci Marsh, a riparian area created by the Verde River.

The citadel of Tuzigoot, occupied between 1100 and 1400, housed about 250 people in about 110 rooms. It was a larger city of the Sinagua, home to more people than Montezuma Castle, or Montezuma Well.

You can reachTuzigoot National Monumentby taking exit 287 off I-17 between Phoenix and Flagstaff. From the exit, follow the signs to the National Park.

An easy day-trip from Phoenix, visiting the site offers the opportunity to drive through some of the lesser-known areas of Arizona.

4. The Cliff Dwellings of Walnut Canyon

Walnut Canyon cliff dwelling
Walnut Canyon cliff dwelling

If you are looking for more cliff dwellings built by the same Sinagua, you don’t need to go far. Just east of Flagstaff, another national park unit, Walnut Canyon National Monumentpreserves a few more.

The Walnut Canyon community of over 100 people lived in the canyon between 1100 and 1250. They built their homes in crevices along the walls of the steep canyon, named after the Arizona black walnut trees growing on the bottom.

Walking the rim trail offers views of some of the cliff dwellings.

However, to fully enjoy and understand the site, you need to take the Island Trail. Though steep, the trail leads down halfway into the canyon, where it levels on a ledge. The ledge, wide enough to walk on – and to house these cliff dwellings – , circles the “island”. The trail on the ledge offers close views – and sometimes opportunities to walk rough – these cliff dwellings.

Walnut Canyon National Monumentis only about twenty miles from Flagstaff. You can reach it either from I-40 or the historic Route 66.

The Ruins of Wupatki National Monument

Just a few miles farther, this time along I-98, you’ll reachWupatki Ruins National Monument.

Wupatki is the largest of the ruins, but in fact, this Arizona national monument comprises a few additional ones. They were all prehistoric villages, home to ancient Pueblo people, ancestors of the modern Pueblo people, the Hopi and Zuni among them.

5. Wupatki Pueblo

The Tall House in Wupatki, one of the largest ruins in Arizona. photo (c) Jeff Fromm
The Tall House in Wupatki. photo (c) Jeff Fromm

Wupatki is the largest ruin at the site, and this is where you’ll find the Visitor Center of the national monument.

Though you can walk out onto the trail from the parking lot, your tour of the ruins should start inside the Visitor Center. Th museum on the premises offers a great introduction to the site, and an insight into the lives of the Pueblo people who built it.

From there, take the trail through the site. Stop at the overlook for an encompassing view of the ancient village. Then walk along the trail to the Tall House, a spectacular four-story structure, the largest free-standing pueblo structure in Northern Arizona. Built and occupied between 1100 and 1185, it was home to about 100 people. Follow the trail to a great kiva, sit down inside it, and enjoy the surroundings. Then walk farther down the trail to the ancient ball court.

6. Wukoki Pueblo

Wukoki ruins. photo (c) Győző Egyed
Wukoki. photo (c) Győző Egyed

Perched on top of a large sandstone rock, Wukoki Pueblo is an eight-room structure. Built and lived-in between the early 1100s and mid-1200s, now stands partially preserved, waiting for visitors. Fewer people stop here than at Wupatki Pueblo – for good reason – , however, the site is still worth a short visit. The trail is only 0.2 miles long, and here you can walk into the structure.

7. Citadel and Nalahiku Pueblos

Just off the road, reachable from a pullout, Citadel Ruins preserve a large structure. You’ll reach Nalahiku Ruins, a smaller sandstone structure at the start of the trail. Follow the trail past it, to reach Citadel Pueblo, on top of a small hill. These sites date from around 1190.

You can hike up to the top of the hill to Citadel and enjoy beautiful vistas of the Painted Desert in the distance. Be aware that it is usually (every time I visited) very windy on top of Citadel Ruins.

You’ll findWupatki National Monument, home to all of the above ruins, on theSunset Crater and Wupatki Scenic Road, just northeast of Flagstaff, off the US-89 N.

8-9. Betatakin and Keet Seel

View of Betatakin cliff dwellings from the Sandal Trail along the rim.
Betatakin. View from the Sandal Trail

On the Navajo Reservation, in the Four Corners Region, you’ll find some of the most impressive cliff dwellings in Arizona, Betatakin and Keet Seel.

Although they are fully on the land of the Navajo Nation, they are preserved as part of a national park unit of Arizona, called Navajo National Monument.

To get there, you’ll drive through the Painted Desert, and marvel at the colors of the surrounding rock formations. You’ll pass tiny settlements and dirt roads leading seemingly nowhere. This Dinétah, the land of the Navajo Nation.

Long before the Diné came to live in the area, this landscape was home to the Ancestral Pueblo people, known as the Anasazi for a long time, a term borrowed from Navajo, meaning “the ancient ones”.

The Ancestral Pueblo people built Betatakin, Keet Seel and Inscription House in the sandstone alcoves of the canyon. They lived here around 1250 to 1300, but in this short time they left behind some of the best-preserved ancient ruins in Arizona.

You can see the impressive cliff dwellings of Betatakin from the Sandal Trail along the rim. However, for a closer look you need to join a guided tour. They start in the morning, so your best bet is to camp there if you want to do it.

Navajo National Monumentis on the Navajo Reservation, you can reach it from a turn-off from US-89 N.

Ancient Ruins in Canyon de Chelly

One of my favorite sites in Arizona,Canyon de Chellyhas some of the most spectacular cliff dwellings in the Four Corners area.

It is a place I visit often with my family. Over the years, we hiked inside the canyon with a guide, took our own four-wheel-drive with another local guide, and often hiked the trail to White House Ruin on our own.

Canyon de Chelly. White House Ruins
Ancient Ruins in Canyon de Chelly.

10. White House Ruins

The best-known cliff dwelling in the park, White House Ruin, at then end of a well-traveled trail, is visible from the canyon top. Though you can no longer hike on a self-guided tour, you can join a ranger-led tour to get to it. These tours are offered at the Visitor Center.

The name White House comes from the white plaster still visible on the back wall of the upper part of the cliff dwelling. Scholars believe that it was home to about 100 people between around 1060 and 1275.

11. Mummy Cave

You can see the cliff dwellings in Mummy Cave from the overlook in Canyon del Muerto, about ten miles east of White House Ruin.

Featuring about 70 rooms and three kivas, the site was once home to about 60-75 people. They lived there from about 600 CE to 1275.

12. Antelope House Ruins

Antelope House Ruins are cliff dwellings along the sides of Canyon del Muerto as well, visible from another overlook.

Though a glimpse from the overlooks are a great way to see these ruins, you can get closer to them if you hire a local guide. They offer either hiking or driving tours to the sites.

Canyon de Chelly National Monument is on the Navajo Reservation, and you can reach it via I-40.

Note: The White House Overlook Trail is closed (in May 2023) because of safety concerns.

13. Cliff Dwellings in Tonto

You can find more cliff dwellings in Arizona much closer to Phoenix, atTonto National Monument, in Roosevelt, Arizona.

Two sets of cliff dwellings are at this site, though only the Lower Cliff Dwelling is open for a self-guided visit. For the Upper Cliff Dwelling, you need to join a ranger-led tour.

A small group of a prehistoric cultural group called Salado built them around the year 1300. This group, living in the Tonto Basin between 1250 and 1450, was a mix of a few individual groups who migrated here over a few centuries.

The Hohokam, or Ancient Sonoran Desert People from the Phoenix area settled here around 700 CE and mixed with the local population. Later, around 1100-1500 CE Ancestral Puebloans arrived, followed by Mogollon groups from the region.

Eventually, all these people, several thousands of them, created their own culture, called the Salado Culture, from the mix of the individual ones.

14. Besh Ba Gowah

Another site left behind by the ancient Salado People is only a few miles past Tonto, in the small town of Globe. The archaeological site features partially reconstructed ruins built between 1225 and 1400.

A small museum at the site showcases prehistoric pottery, textiles, and stone objects used by the Salado People archaeologists found on the premises.

The ancient village known asBesh Ba Gowahborrowed its name from the Apache term for the early settlement, meaning “place of metal”.

Once home to one of the largest and most complex Salado Community, the site had about 400 rooms on two levels.

15. Casa Grande

Casa Grande Ruins
Casa Grande Ruins

About an hour’s drive from Phoenix, perfect for a day trip visit, another national park unit preserves the ruins ofCasa Grande, a prehistoric village of the Ancestral Desert people also known as Hohokam.

Dominated by the four-story “big house” that gave the site its name, the site was not only a village but also a ceremonial and trading center.

You can learn about the people who built it and lived in it when you visit the museum at the Visitor Center. From there, walk along the trails and around the buildings surrounding the “Big House”. People lived in this area, and built the village between 1100 and 1450. The largest structure, Casa Grande, the big house the site got its name from, dates from the 1300’s.

You can reachCasa Grande Ruins National Monument from Phoenix in a few different ways, driving towards Florence.

16. S’edav Va’aki Museum and Archaeological Site

Inside a pithouse at Pueblo Grande, Phoenix
Inside a pit house at Pueblo Grande

Sitting in the center of Phoenix,S’edav Va’aki Museumpreserves the ruins of the same people, also nicknamed the “canal makers” who lived in this place thousands of years before us.

The archaeological site features a pit house that answers the question we often ask ourselves: how could these people live here in the heat of the desert.

The answer is, they invented air conditioning of sorts. By building the pit house partially underground, they kept it cooler in the summer months and warmer in the winter.

You won’t notice it at first glimpse though, but if someone points it out to you, you’ll have one of those aha moments.

A desert garden irrigated the way the ancients would have, a ball court and a newer complex of pit houses sit along the trail.

At the far end, you’ll see the Phoenix canal we still use, originally dug by the people who built the ancient city. Nicknamed the canal makers, they built miles upon miles of them, bringing water to the far sides of the Valley of the Sun, to what is today Glendale.

S’edav Va’aki Museum Archaeological Parkis only a few minutes from the airport, and it is a perfect stop on a long layover even to those just passing through Phoenix.

17. The Sears-Kay Ruins

Sears-Kay Ruins, AZ
The Sears-Kay Ruins in Arizona

A more remote – and much smaller – site in Arizona, the Sears-Kay ruins was an ancient village built by the same Ancestral Sonoran Desert People (Hohokam) who lived in and around ancient Phoenix. You’ll find it in the desert just east of the city, on the scenic drive towards Seven Springs.

Remains of a prehistoric hilltop village, the Sears-Kay ruins comprise 40 rooms in five separate compounds. Dating from around 1050 to 1200, this ancient village is only one of a few built in the foothills surrounding Carefree.

Protected by stone walls, it stood on a prominent hilltop and seemed to be built for defense. Archaeologists think this shows competition for resources, possibly land and water. The general thinking is that they were meant to protect the foothills from outside attacks.

At the end of a half-mile trail through the desert, you’ll reach the ruins, comprising above-ground rectangular structures.

The largest, most complex one was once a fortified hilltop compound, built on two levels, on the very top of the hill. It is not only the largest structure, but has the farthest view of the area. This might suggest that the entire village used it in times of danger, when they might have been attacked.

By the end of the 12th century the Hohokam abandoned the village, moving down into the valleys, in less defensive locations.

18. Shoofly Village Ruins

Another small site, just outside of Payson, on the Mogollon Rim, Shoofly Village Ruins preserve the vestiges of another ancient settlement.

You won’t find spectacular structures here, though the views are gorgeous, overlooking the Rim and its pine-covered forests.

You’ll see the base of many ancient homes here, built by the ancient Mogollon Rim People between 1000 – 1250 AD. At its busiest time, the village was home to about 250 people, living in around 80 one-room homes with courtyards and plazas.

The ancient village was surrounded by a stone wall, the remains of which you can still see.

Looking out from the trail, you have perfect views of the Mogollon Rim, and you realize that its gorgeous setting must have been the reason the ancients choose the location for this village.

19. Puerco Pueblo in Petrified Forest

Puerco Pueblo Ruins
Puerco Pueblo Ruins

Though famous for its petrified wood,Petrified Forest National Park is also home to ancient ruins.

Thousands of them are scattered through the area, ranging from one-room shelters to pueblos with over a hundred of them.

One of these sites you can visit in the park is Puerco Pueblo, an ancient village that once housed about 200 people. Built on the banks of the Puerco River, the village was home to the Ancestral Puebloans between 1250 – 1380 AD.

A 0.3-mile trail takes visitors through the site, to see remains of the walls of the rooms, and a few clearly discernible petroglyphs.

And You Can Find Many More…

The above list only highlights a few of the ancient ruins or archaeological sites in Arizona. However, the state is full if ancient dwellings, villages on hilltops, near washes, or anywhere people could survive.

When you hike in the desert, you’ll often find ruins, or broken pottery in the most unexpected places, often without any signs to tell you about them.

For those interested in these sites, it’s worth exploring non-designated trails in the desert. Especially if you notice a trail of broken pottery along them, or unnatural-looking piles of rocks.

Ancient pottery pieces scattered in the Arizona desert (St Clair Ruins)
Ancient pottery pieces scattered in the Arizona desert (St Clair Ruins)

Recently, my husband and I hiked one of these trails. The scenery was gorgeous, and on top of the hill, we found a few ancient walls.

But what was even more amazing for me were the pottery pieces scattered nearby. Finding them as I looked under my feet made me feel like an explorer, an archaeologist.

To give the next person the same feeling, the same sense of wonder, please leave them as you find them.

Q &A: In a Nutshell about the Ancient Ruins of Arizona

  1. Are there ancient ruins in Arizona?

    Arizona is filled with ancient ruins. You can find them everywhere, from the center of Phoenix to the farthest parts of the state, both southeast and the northeast. Some are large, and well preserved, others just barely walls in the middle of the desert.

  2. What type of ruins can you find in Arizona?

    You can find both cliff dwellings and pueblo-style structures built of stone or clay.

  3. What are cliff dwellings?

    Cliff dwellings are some of the most spectacular ruins in Arizona and the Southwest in general. As the name suggests, they are structures built into a cliff, generally on the sides of a canyon. They may have multiple rooms, sometimes housing whole villages. Most of the larger ones are in the Four Corners area. Examples of cliff dwellings in Arizona are Montezuma Castle, White House Ruins and Betatakin.
    Montezuma Castle - photo by Győző Egyed

  4. Who built the ancient structures in Arizona?

    Different ancient people of the desert built the ruins in Arizona.

    The cliff dwellings and stand-alone structures in central Arizona, Montezuma Castle and Montezuma Well, Tuzigoot, and Walnut Canyon are the work of ancient people we call Sinagua.

    The Ancestral Puebloans, known for a long time as Anasazi built the cliff dwellings and structures in the northern part of the state, in Canyon de Chelly, Wupatki and at Navajo National Monument.

    The people who built the structures in today’s Phoenix, and its vicinity, Pueblo Grande and Casa Grande, are the Ancient Sonoran Desert people, also known as Hohokam.

    The ruins in the southeastern part of the state, Tonto and Besh Ba Gowah, are the work of ancient people belonging to the Salado Culture.

  5. What happened to these ancient people?

    Contrary to the old belief, people who built these structures did not vanish, did not disappear.
    They are the ancestors of the present-day modern Indigenous nations of Arizona. For example, the Hopi and Zuni tribes trace their lineage to the Ancestral Puebloans. You can learn about their stories when visiting the specific archaeological sites, or the Heard Museum in Phoenix.

Recommendations and Resources

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Read more about your destination, and use guidebooks when you go:

Carrying a physical book with you might be old-fashioned, but in a world where cell service is spotty or nonexistent, it pays to do so. The Lonely Planet guide books are my go-to travel books. Try the Southwest USA Travel book (or ebook) for information on the better-known of the above sites. *If buying a book through my link, a 10% discount will be automatically applied to your purchase (but if you don’t see the discount, use coupon code EMESEFROMM10)

Book your flight:

Unless you live within driving distance from these sites, you need to fly to Phoenix. Check several different sites to find the best deals. Unless you know what airline you are using use (and have a credit card with points from that airline), you could checkCheapOairandWayAwayfor deals.

Book your rental car:

To compare prices of different car rental companies,Discover Carsis a great place to start. Or,

Book your accommodations:

You can useTrivagoto compare deals on hotels and alternative accommodations. Or, book a place

About the author

Emese-Réka Fromm is a resident of Arizona for over thirty years. Interested in archaeology and the history of ancient people, she often explores ancient ruins in Arizona with her husband. She also reads professional books about the sites she visits. Published travel writer with bylines is publications like Lonely Planet, Matador Network, Travel Awaits, among others, she is also traveler and language instructor in Phoenix.

Ancient Ruins in Arizona

20 thoughts on “19 Ancient Ruins in Arizona To Visit: A Complete Guide”

  1. I’ve been in the Phoenix area 2 years now (but I’m moving) and have REALLY enjoyed visiting all of these ancient ruins – there are so many, and all in such good shape. I am keenly interested in the mystery of where these ancient peoples disappeared to!

  2. I have always wanted to visit the Navajo Reservation, it’s been somewhat of a dream of mine since I was a kid. But then again, there are so many great places that I want to visit in the US, so I think my trip would have to be a few years long 😀

  3. When we visited Arizona we mostly toured around the stunning natural beauty. Although we did stop for a few hours at Montezuma Castle but missed the Montezuma Well. Fascinating to see the different cave dwellings around the state. The site at Betatakin looks massive! Good to know you will need guides for some sites so need to check in advance. Definitely yet one more reason we need to head back to Arizona one day.

    1. The natural beauty of the state made us move here in the first place, so I totally get it. Montezuma Castle is an easy stop from the highway, and it is one of the more spectacular sites, I’m not surprised you visited. Now you have a reason to return. 🙂

  4. This looks so mysterious – like some deserts in the Middle East.
    I always wanted to visit this part of the US but since I’m not driving, it might be a bit complicated. Also, it’s difficult to visit spots away from bigger cities by public transport. So, as soon as I find a designated driver, I’ll visit the ancient ruins in Arizona.

  5. How fascinating! The first I had ever heard of these ancient ruins was in a recent post of yours & I had no idea that there were any…let alone so many! I have never been to Arizona but when I make it there, I would love to visit a few of these. Thanks for highlighting.

  6. This was so fascinating. I’d love to visit some of the sites one day. Especially Betetakin jumped out as a place I’d like to see. It amazes me how ancient people all over the world found ways to make extreme climates work. The cliff dwellings make so much sense as a way to create much needed shade. Great post.

  7. Thank you Emese for sharing your ranking of ancient archaeological sites in Arizona.

    When designing itineraries for travelers, I ask three questions: Are you interested in visiting and viewing the Best; the Greatest Concentration; or the Most Convenient Ancestral Sites in Arizona?

    I look forward to receiving, and reading future writings.

    Las Vegas Private Tour Guide

    1. Hi Art, Sounds like you are designing your tours carefully, catered to the specific travelers; I like your questions, they give you a good idea of where to take your clients. And it also probably helps to take people to the more remote sites, not always the same ones that get totally overrun by tourists. Glad you liked my post, thank you for stopping by, I appreciate you reading and commenting.

  8. How wonderful to have your compositions and photos of these ancient ruins. I have visit Montezuma Castle and Walnut Canyon. My daughter now living in Australia is coming for a visit this March and we are going to explore Canyon De Chelly Tuzigoot Wapatki and possibly Navajo National M. We both appreciate the desert and like to wander in nature. Do you have a suggestion for a guide service for Canyon De Chelly?
    I notice you have articles on Oregon places. I live in Oregon!

    1. Hi Jean, Thank you for your comment. The desert is truly wonderful, and March will be a great place to visit, especially if you are spending most of your time in the high desert. In Canyon de Chelly they offer ranger-led hiking tours now, since they closed the White House Ruins trail; you can sign up for one at the Visitor Center. It’s been a long time since I took a guided tour, but we always found someone when we stopped at the Visitor Center. We hiked into the into the canyon with a guide, and took our own four-wheel-drive vehicle, joined by a guide. We just asked at the Visitor Center, and they recommended someone who was best for what we wanted to see. You can book ahead now, try the park’s website to do it.
      We love Oregon! So different from the desert; we like to spend time in the summer there. Such a gorgeous state!

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